As stated earlier, the most common reservoir rocks are sedimentary rocks; however, naturally fractured igneous and metamorphic rocks can also form hydrocarbon reservoirs. This courseware module is part of Penn State's College of Earth and Mineral Sciences' OER Initiative. But a hydrocarbon reservoir is just one of the six elements that constitute a hydrocarbon system: Source Rock Thermal Maturation Reservoir Rock Migration Path Cap Rock Petroleum … In the example in Figure 2.06, the trap is an anticline like that shown in the photograph in Figure 2.04. Two commonalities that exist during the depositional process, even over the geologic time scale, are (1) the sediments and, consequently, the sedentary rocks that are lower in the stratigraphic column were deposited earlier than sediments higher in the stratigraphic column and (2) the layers of sediment are initially deposited horizontally. The petroleum system and modern exploration techniques including detailed study of petroleum source rocks, their deposition, thermal maturation and the chemical and physical characteristics of … Petroleum is not found in underground lakes or rivers, but it exists within the void space of certain rocks. Statistically, anticlines are the most common traps; however, they are not the only types of hydrocarbon traps. Print. As we will discuss later, these source rocks are typically organic-rich shales, siltstones, or coals. The Pennsylvania State University © 2020, Figure 2.04: Arch Rock Near State College, PA along Route 322, Figure 2.05: The Obelisk at the University Park Campus of Penn State, Figure 2.06: Typical Oil and Gas Reservoir Showing the Requirements for Conventional Crude Oil and Natural Gas Reservoirs, Source: Gregory King © Penn State University (, Figure 2.07: Stratigraphic Traps Resulting in Crude Oil and Natural Gas Accumulations, Figure 2.08: Structural Traps Resulting in Crude Oil and Natural Gas Accumulations, Introduction to Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, Lesson 1: Introduction to Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, Lesson 2: Origin and Occurrence of Hydrocarbons, 2.8: Undersaturated Black Oil (Low Shrinkage Oil) Reservoirs, 2.9: Saturated Black Oil (Low Shrinkage Oil) Reservoirs, 2.10: Undersaturated Volatile Oil (High Shrinkage Oil) Reservoirs, Lesson 3: Reservoir Engineering: Rock and Fluid Properties, Lesson 4: Reservoir Engineering for Oil Reservoirs, Lesson 5: Reservoir Engineering for Gas Reservoirs, Lesson 6: Production Engineering: Flow in Well Tubing, Lesson 7: Production Engineering: Well Intervention, Lesson 8: Drilling Engineering - Drilling Contracts, The Rig Crew, and Drilling Rigs, Lesson 9: Drilling Engineering: Drilling Rig Systems and the Drilling Process, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science, Earth and Environmental Systems Institute, iMPS in Renewable Energy and Sustainability Policy Program Office, BA in Energy and Sustainability Policy Program Office, 2217 Earth and Engineering Sciences Building, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802. These histories illustrate the critical nature of the timing in the development of hydrocarbon reservoirs. We will discuss this in more detail when we discuss Reservoir Traps later in this lesson. Basic Petroleum Geology for the Non-Geologist. Petroleum geology – The study of the origin, occurrence, movement, accumulation, and exploration of hydrocarbon fuels Petrology – The branch of geology that studies the origin, composition, distribution … Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. In this discussion, we will also need to … As the relative position of the sea level changes over the geologic time scale, the positions of the coarser and finer sediments change. If one element is missing from the system, then a crude oil or natural gas reservoir cannot develop. It needs to be emphasized that although this figure consists of solid colored bands, these bands represent either porous or non-porous rocks. As mentioned earlier in this lesson, the size and weight of the sediments that form sedimentary rocks are deposited in water are dependent on the energy of the water suspending the particles. The … DESIGNED FOR: petroleum industry personnel in need of basic geological training, including engineering, geophysical, technical support, and administrative personnel. About the Course. On the other hand, lighter, finer sediments can be suspended in low energy environments away from the shore in more calm waters and, consequently, are deposited further from the shoreline. A cap rock is simply an overlying rock layer that is impermeable to flow. Any deformation (folding, uplifting, tilting, faulting, etc.) Schlumberger … In just three days, you will understand the big picture of the petroleum industry, learn the fundamentals and language of petroleum … We will highlight the following four basic forms of traps in petroleum geology further: • Anticline Trap • Fault Trap • Salt Dome Trap • Stratigraphic Trap • Traps with the Fracture Network. This is because it is missing a trapping mechanism at this location.). For all practical purposes it closely resembles the freshman level course that a non-science major at a university would take to satisfy the science requirement. Figure 2.08c shows traps along a salt dome. The higher, uplifted portions of the tilted layers were then eroded over geological time. This gap in the geological record is caused by a past erosional period. The “inverted bowl-shaped” feature in this photo is an anticlinal structure, or simply an anticline. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. The depositional history of an unconformity trap is slightly more complicated than that of a pinchout trap. Figure 2.07 shows (a) a “pinch-out” trap and (b) an unconformity trap. These traps are common in areas where salt formations exist, such as in the Gulf of Mexico. A fault trap is created when a rock formation undergoes mechanical failure during an earthquake and the resulting fault causes a porous and permeable rock formation (reservoir rock) to be positioned adjacent to an impermeable rock formation. In the following discussions, all of the action concerning this figure is occurring in the pore-spaces of porous rock. • Lateral variation in magnetic susceptibility and remanence give rise to spatial variations in the magnetic field • It is … These salt intrusions can create hydrocarbon traps above and to the flanks of the intrusion as depicted in Figure 2.08c. This is because the main driving mechanism in hydrocarbon migration is buoyancy, which occurs because the oil and gas are less dense (lighter) than the resident water. Consequently, a rock formation with a higher porosity implies greater storage capacity than a rock formation with a lower porosity. A full scale basin analysis is usually carried out prior to defining leads and prospects for future... Exploration stage. It provides foundational information required to work in the current industry environment, with content that ranges from a historical overview to methods of exploration, new technologies, subsurface geology, petroleum generation, reservoirs, traps, seals, petroleum systems, unconventional reservoirs, shale plays, geophysics, geochemistry, … These road-cuts often show cross-sectional outcrops of layered, deformed rock formations along the road-side. In this trap system, an early depositional period caused sedimentary rocks to be deposited horizontally. In order to prevent this buoyant flow from occurring all of the way to the surface, a vertical flow barrier, or Cap Rock, is required along the migration path and at the reservoir itself. The porosity of a rock is defined as the fraction of the rock’s bulk (total) volume occupied by the pores. Although a basin analysis is … Geology itself is firmly based on chemistry, physics, and biology, involving … These form the lower tilted layers in Figure 2.07b. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. (Note that the horizontal yellow layer representing good quality reservoir rock above the unconformity surface, does not contain crude oil or natural gas. In this discussion, we will also need to include brief discussions of related, specialized areas of geologic study including Stratigraphy and Structural Geology. You are probably most familiar with the concepts of stratigraphy and structural geology from road-cuts seen along highways. Petroleum Geology – application of geology (study of Earth, materials and processes) to the exploration and production of oil and natural gas i. Geology = interdisciplinary science at the crossroads of Chemistry, Physics and Biology ii. i have been searching geology of petroleum, … • Biology • Biochemistry: transformation of plant and animal tissues into kerogen and through to … One example of a stratigraphic column that you may be familiar with is The Obelisk on the University Park Campus of Penn State. Examples of stratigraphic hydrocarbon traps are shown in Figure 2.07. Note, a stratigraphic column is a written, pictorial, or schematic record of the local rock strata showing the order of the rock deposition (older rocks at the bottom and younger rocks at the top), along with notes concerning the age of the rocks, occurrence of any fossils, any rocks which may be absent from the local geological record due to erosion, or any notes of use to a geologist. Basics of Petroleum Geology. In Figure 2.06, the cap rock is depicted by the black layer. Primary objectives of the course are to broaden your geological vocabulary, explain selected geological principles and processes, and describe how certain petroleum … Petroleum Geologists are the men and women who know how to read the story told by the very earth beneath our feet in order to find oil and … Petroleum Geology for Non-Geologists The Basics of Petroleum Geology Concepts and Processes for Technical & Non-Technical Professionals in the Oil & Gas Industry. The orange wavy line represents an unconformity surface where rocks are missing from the geological record. Author: Gregory King, Professor of Practice, Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University. See search results for this author. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Crude oil and natural gas traps can be categorized as Stratigraphic Traps or Structural Traps. A pinchout trap, Figure 2.07a, is formed due to the relative rise and fall of a water body in relation to the local land mass. As stated earlier, the anticline is statistically the most common reservoir trap. The layering you see is the local geologic stratigraphy; while the deformations you see form the local geologic structure of the rock formations. Anticlines statistically form the most common crude oil and natural gas reservoirs. Contact Us, Privacy & Legal Statements | Copyright Information From this discussion, we can see that sediments lower in the stratigraphic column must be older than those higher in the stratigraphic column. Primary migration refers to the initial expulsion of the hydrocarbons from the source rock, while secondary migration refers to the remainder of migration to the reservoir. A trap or trapping mechanism is a change in the stratigraphy or a structural deformation that is capable of stopping the migration process and keeping the oil and gas in place over geologic time. Petroleum Geology Training | This 5-Day course to summarize the fundamentals of Geology needed to be understood and integrated with Engineering data to manage petroleum reservoirs. The book "Basic Petroleum Geology" is a must for petroleum geology beginners even for mature geologists as well. Permeability is a property of the rock that is a measure of the ease in which fluids can flow through a porous medium (in our case, a rock formation). The study of the geological processes that create crude oil and natural gas reservoirs is referred to as Petroleum Geology. The Geology of Time. As we can see from this figure, the hydrocarbons do not necessarily originate in the hydrocarbon reservoir itself but are generated away from the reservoir in rocks that are conducive to hydrocarbon generation. geology by measuring the strength or intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field. For a hydrocarbon reservoir to develop, all five elements of the reservoir system must be in place prior to the formation and migration of the hydrocarbons. Heavier, coarser materials can only be suspended in high energy environments near the shore where wave and tidal action keep these materials mixed with the water. Structural traps, illustrated in Figure 2.08, are related to mechanical deformations and failures of the reservoir rock. The study of the geological processes that create crude oil and natural gas reservoirs is referred to as Petroleum Geology. With these changes, the types of sediments that are deposited change and the locations where they are deposited also change. Bakken Development: Pathway to Success, Roadmap to a New Tomorrow, No public clipboards found for this slide. A high permeability formation implies greater oil and gas production rates and more economically attractive production wells. Petroleum geology terminology is also defined. 2.1: Basic Earth Geology Print Since the occurrence of crude oil and natural gas are intrinsically associated with reservoir rocks, we must start our discussion of the origin and occurrence of natural hydrocarbons with petroleum geology. Code Date Venue … Chapter 5 is intended to introduce the basic principle of petroleum extraction and recovery mechanisms. You can change your ad preferences anytime. As discussed earlier, permeability is defined as the ease in which fluids flow through porous media. Petroleum Geology plays an important role in today's society. 2.3: Basic Petroleum Geology. Under the proper sequence of events, as the geographical locations of the sediments change over the geologic time scale, the changes in the size of the sediments can create pinchout, or stratigraphic trap. In this photograph, the layering (stratigraphy) and deformation (structure) of the Keefer Formation (Silurian Age) are clearly evident. He joined The University of Tulsa’s Geosciences Department in the late 1960s and is now Professor of Petroleum Geology … Figure 2.08b shows a fault trap. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Basics of Petroleum Geology Presented By: Shahnawaz Mustafa. In order for an unconformity trap to develop, the first layer deposited during the second depositional period must be an impermeable rock which can act as the cap rock for the reservoir. I. The College of Earth and Mineral Sciences is committed to making its websites accessible to all users, and welcomes comments or suggestions on access improvements. 3. 10 March 2016 (19:56) rick . This pathway is the Migration Path in the hydrocarbon system. The reason for this is very simple. As we have already discussed, hydrocarbon reservoirs are typically associated with sedimentary rock formations. An anticlinal trap simply requires that the reservoir rock and cap rock be folded in a manner that can trap the lighter hydrocarbons. Unfortunately, these oil-bearing rocks are a definite minority, and the determination of their whereabouts is the basic … Presentation is oriented toward topics of interest to the petroleum … Stratigraphy is the study of the layers (or strata) within rock formations; while Structural Geology is the study of the deformation of rock under tectonic forces. 1. Petroleum products have been used for at least 8000 years Herodotus 450 BC natural seeps Egyptians mummification/ Victorian … Over geologic time, weathered and eroded rock materials are carried downstream from elevated regions to lower regions in rivers and streams to oceans, seas, or lakes. As discussed earlier, oil and natural gas exist in the pore-space between the grains of the sedimentary rocks. Geology of Petroleum E-Learning > General Petroleum Library > Basic Principles of Petroleum > Geology of Petroleum Module 1 discusses how the physical structure of the earth was formed, what the earths … This is called the depositional process. In Figure 2.06, the solid green arrows represent the primary migration of the hydrocarbons, while the dashed green arrows represent the secondary migration of the hydrocarbons. Looks like you’ve clipped this slide to already. From this discussion, we can also see that in their original, natural state, sedimentary rocks are horizontal. Chapter 6 reviews the petroleum geology and status of petroleum industry in Yemen. Since large volumes of salt behave in a plastic manner over geologic time, the weight of the overburden creates great pressures within the salt causing it to flow through any local weak spots in the overburden. Dr.Ir. Schlumberger Private Porosity space between rock grains in which oil accumulates Permeability passage-ways between pores through with fluids move Seal Rock rock through which oil and gas can not move effectively (such as mudstone or claystone) Migration Route avenues in the rock through which oil and gas … PETROLEUM GEOLOGY: AN INTRODUCTION Ronald F. Broadhead, New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, a Division of New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology INTRODUCTION The … The Basic Overview a. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. In these figures, the yellow layers represent reservoir quality rock (Reservoir Rock); while the green areas represent an oil accumulation in the reservoir trap. The last component of a hydrocarbon system is the Trap. Read more @article{osti_6499973, title = {Basic petroleum geology}, author = {Link, P K}, abstractNote = {Fundamental concepts of the earth in terms of petroleum occurrence, exploration, and recovery are discussed, drawing on examples from throughout the world. This video is my first video in a series about flipping the geophysics / geology / geoscience classroom. in sedimentary rock formations is caused by tectonic forces acting on the rock after deposition and solidification. Fundamentals of Petroleum Geology Contact IHRDC Sales for Corporate Purchases Add to Cart Price: US$125.00 Description: The same basic fundamentals for hydrocarbon accumulation apply for small accumulations as they do for large accumulations, and those basic … Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. (Note: a relative rise or fall may be due to either a true rise or fall of the sea level, or a subsidence or uplift of the land mass.) These materials are deposited as sediments at the point in the depositional environment where the wave and tidal energy can no longer support them. Basic Petroleum Geology and Log AnalysisHalliburton 10 Basic Petroleum Geology© 2001, HalliburtonThree Basic Rock TypesThe earth’s crust is composed of three basic rock types: … Figure 2.07b shows an unconformity trap. This, in turn, results in the possibility of greater quantities of oil and gas stored in the more porous rock. The Obelisk is a physical column constructed of quarried building materials from Pennsylvania with the older rocks placed at the base of the column and the younger rocks placed at the top of the column. At the point in the rivers, oceans, seas, or lakes where the energy in the water can no longer suspend or transport the rock material, it begins to settle in the water and is deposited onto the bottom of the water body. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The coarser materials with the larger pore spaces between the sediment grains often make good quality rock, while the finer materials, particularly clays and silts, with smaller pore spaces make good impermeable seals (cap rocks). Suggestions on accessibility to the flanks of the building stones of Pennsylvania this gap in the example in... 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